While the purpose of this site remains focused on high performance driving, and the technical side of our brain spends it’s time on suspension tuning, the “what if” side of us find’s its fascination in engine swaps. Yes that’s a wild hair, and the swaps don’t always make sense – and most wouldn’t last a lap in a track event. But here’s what makes engine swaps appealing and visceral: when you see one, you immediately start to try to imagine the sounds and feeling of driving the car with its new engine. We are hooked.
We’ve covered swaps as we’ve found interesting examples, and we’ve developed our own likes and dislikes. There are early British and Japanese sports cars desperately in need of engines, later sportscars with great suspensions but in need of an appropriate engine, new sports cars that have their suspension together but are still lacking in a great engine (until the swap), and even wholly modern cars backdated with a classic engine swaps. There are swaps to cover the situation where the factory produces an example – but the car was only imported with a lame engine. Then there are the absurd: small cars with giant engines, and the classic: classic cars with even more-classic engines. The variety goes on and on forever, hence our fascination, and we’ve covered about 50 such examples in our Engine Swap category.
Besides the technical challenge of getting the engine to fit, and connecting it to the vehicle’s systems (no easy thing), there is also the matter of style. Style is subjective, and it can also be generational. Case in point is this GM LSx engine swap into a Datsun 280Z. We’ve seen this type of swap before, in fact the very first engine swap we ever saw was a Chevy small block into a similar early Z, resulting in a wildly powerful autocross car. But that swap, and many others we seen since, was performed by older “swappers” who had no interest in the appearance – the “style” – of the car. It was “just” technical. This brings us to the swap below, where the focus of the creator is not only the engine but also to make a statement. The style is his own, and is not to everyone’s taste. It’s clearly unique, generational, and says as much about the creator’s technical talent as it does about his own style, taste, and aspirations.
As you approach this car, you’re drawn to the paint job… thoughts such as “drift car” occur to you. Some might therefore dismiss it and move on. But then you notice the engine and see that there is a lot more to this car than the first impression of the eye. It’s purpose is not to destroy itself into a concrete wall, it’s built for the challenge of the swap.
Why this particular paint job? It’s creative expression. The engine swapper is also the owner.
It started out as a single flat color with plastidip.. when that proved problematic, it was found that a purposeful peel made it that much more unique. And it’s a work-in-progress.
This is a 280Z, with its OEM safety bumpers removed. Ask your self what type of Z enthusiast and swapper you would be: would you just remove the ugly safety bumpers, replace them with the small JDM bumpers to retain the vision of the original creators of the Z, or would you leave the bumpers on the car that originally came with it?
Larger wheels and tires than original are necessary to manage the >tripling of the torque. We’d personally like to see some major suspension mods here, but as we said this is a work in progress.
And here’s the centerpiece, a GM LSx engine.
Chevy small-block V-8 swaps have been popular for many years in Zs, and are often described as a “natural fit”.
You can see why: there is plenty of room on all sides.
As well as on the steering side, where the steering shaft is often a top challenge.
The LSx engine is also much shorter than the original inline six, leaving plenty of room up front, and keeping the overall weight balance of the car reasonable – if not improved.
In our humble opinion, purely as an observer, some more work is needed here. An elbow off to the side and a much larger air filter is needed to fill the lungs of the V-8.
We’re glad the swapper kept the fuel injection system… in our opinion reverting to a simpler carburetor would have been a cop-out. This engine was made for fuel injection and will always be far better because of it. That makes for a more difficult swap – and this swapper was up to the challenge of the required fuel pumps, high-pressure lines, and electronics.
If there is going to be a fit problem, it’s going to be with the air conditioner compressor. But, again, we’ll note that it’s here and ready for use. Most swappers just ignore air conditioning and don’t bother going to this extent.
Inside we find the TR-6060 shifter in exactly the right place.
The original ergonomics of the Z remain intact, with everything in it’s logical place and the shifter and wheel falling easily to hand.
And then we find these recovered Recaro seats, matching the overall style of the car.
Here’s a personal statement. No functional value to the swap… but we can appreciate the message.
We’re very much looking forward to seeing this car again as its evolution continues.
It’s been a great summer in Central Texas so far: highs only in the 90s. Until this past week when the usual 100 degree+ temperatures have arrived. Oh well, we’re here to see a car show, the sky is blue, and at least it’s not the rain and cold that put a damper on several of the shows at the start of the year.
Our favorite car of the day? There were many, but the standout today is this LSx-swapped Datsun 280Z. Why? Creativity. Factors such as longevity and originality are the usual criteria for car shows, but today we’ll choose creativity over the usual factors. We’ll have a post detailing this car up next.
Here’s our full gallery of 93 images, covering just some of the cars there.
Austin’s “other” major car show, the Leander Car Show, runs the first Sunday morning of every month. It’s a “Cars and Coffee”-type show, and in fact used to be C&C before they split off and moved. The result is the most approachable show in Texas, where anything ranging from the highest end collectibles to the most common Mustangs can appear. And with everything in between from swaps, rat rods, Euro and Japanese classics, even military vehicles. This is our favorite show every month.
And here are two examples why: our two choices for best car of show this month. Why two? When you look thru the full set of images in the gallery, you’ll see that both these owners went the full “9 yards” with the design and modifications of their vehicles.
The first is this terriffic 1967 Chevelle SS with an LSx swap. And not just any swap, this one was as clean as they come. Every single detail was attended to, from the engine to the body to the suspension and brakes (modern Corvette). Every single part was carefully chosen for its functionality, challenge, and statement. The end result is stunning. See the gallery for the full set of images.
The interior is thoroughly reworked, yet retains the essence of it’s Chevelle DNA.
The engine swap is as clean as they come. And see the gallery for a special note about the radiator overflow bottle.
But there was also another vehicle with an engine swap, this one even more extensive – and outrageous. This is a restored 1947 International truck, with a modern Dodge inline 6 Diesel swap. No expense was spared, and the choice of engine was both logical for this truck – and challenging. Full pictures are in the gallery, but here are some highlights of this incredible vehicle. Like the SS above, it couldn’t be cleaner and the builder attended to every possible detail.
Here’s the engine – and how many of these have you seen swapped? Yet it’s perfectly appropriate for this vehicle.
The interior is gorgeous, functional, and even comfortable. The truck can be easily driven anywhere – and was driven here.
Here’s our full gallery of 129 images, covering just some of the cars there.
Yesterday we instructed at the Circuit of the Americas. A group from Mexico had rented COTA for a day and it was our job to teach them the track as well as to certify some of them as instructors for their own events back home. All 40 students had some degree of experience, ranging from several HPDE-type drivers up to a couple of professional race drivers. The entire group was terrific, and we were very impressed that the members respected the track but also consistently drove aggressively and safely right from the start. And without a single incident on the wide-open track and with lap timing and passing anywhere. You couldn’t ask for a better group of students, and the organizer, Edge Addicts, did their usual highly professional and very thorough job.
The picture shows one of our students with his E92 V-8 M3 (tan shirt). He also brought a twin-turbo V-8 M5 that he shared with his son (not in this picture).
Our work with the two of them in the M3 brings to mind a comparison to our own 2013 Boss 302 Mustang – a car that was designed by Ford to compete with the M3 on the track. We compared the speeds of each at the same points on COTA: the M3 was just a little slower (-5 MPH at the end of the back straight). On any given track it would be faster or slower depending on the track… but overall the M3 is superior to the Boss 302 because it’s far more polished. For example, it isn’t on the ragged edge of running too hot despite a 100 degree day and a track that requires aggressive driving (and braking). There’s never an issue with the modern M3, as there always is with this and all of our previous Mustangs.
The biggest advantage of the M3 is its suspension design. It’s so superior to the Mustang that this is the car you’d want to drive on the track. It’s very stable, the IRS is actively working for you and with you. The experienced driver can use the characteristics of an IRS to help rotate the car through the turns. Here’s the Car and Driver introductory road test for your reference, and a second test from 2012.
By contrast, the Mustang’s suspension always works against you in the turns: it inherently tries to shift its massive unsprung weight in the wrong direction in the turns, only tentatively held in check by a single brace. Shifting to the right, to the left, and up. It’s asymmetric in design and especially in response. The old-fashioned “solid axle” architecture is cheap, crude, and severely outdated. It feels like you are dragging a great weight behind the car, and it hips, skips, and jumps on rough pavement and in turns.
The net result is an all-too-typical Ford: a great motor and a poor suspension. We’ve been there so many times over the years.
In between sessions on the track, we were visualizing the differences and replaying our laps in the M3 versus laps in our own Mustang. And, yes, we’ve driven many examples of M3s of all generations on several tracks.
To be fair, the E92 M3 is not perfect: the brakes (astoundingly, single piston calipers) are inadequate and the engine – while highly tuned – has little torque and miserable gas mileage. But then there is the 7 speed double-clutch transmission – it’s awesome (even though in North America we get watered down tuning of it) although it took a couple of years of continuous development to get it right (and the aftermarket can update the transmission tuning to Euro specs). The 2015 next-generation M3 & M4 fixes all of these issues, while raising the price even higher compared to the Mustang.
And that is a strength of the Mustang: cost effectiveness. It has some of the needed performance elements even if they aren’t very well polished (or last very long). With the Mustang you get what you pay for, and when any one cheap element inevitably lets you down then the entire car fails. For example, while the brakes are better than in the M3, they are still too small and could be much better for a braking-intensive track such as COTA. At the end of the back straight, at 140 MPH, it takes 100% of the brakes to slow sufficiently to make the left-hand – and very tight – turn (and this with race pads and very large brake cooling ducts). The car has another 5 MPH in it (and another 5 if only the transmission would shift into 5th without binding), but not with these brakes. And even then, the Mustang brakes heavily nose-down with its tail up in the air. Another fail.
It’s great to see that the next generation Mustang addresses so many of these areas, with an entirely new suspension front and rear, and improved brakes. But the bar has already been raised in the market (and will be raised again by the upcoming 2016 Camaro), and our past experience with Mustangs suggests that this new generation will probably fall short after about a year of celebration in the “popular” press. We’d like to see that popular press take of their marketing hats and live with all three of these cars at speed over a COTA weekend.
So that’s the Truth about Mustangs (and M3s), as we’ve experienced it.
435 HP in the improved Coyote V-8. 310 HP in the EcoBoost 2.3. We’ve been waiting the entire year for Ford to finally release HP specs for the new Mustang, and today that finally happened.
We’re not surprised by the incremental gain in the Coyote… we’d bet the CO2 emissions improved there as well – especially since it’s got to pass tough European standards. The 2.3 EcoBoost is a pleasant surprise – we remember our early 4.6 liter SVT Cobras that made less power and had a far less usable torque curve. We’d be willing to bet that the 2.3 EcoBoost Mustang will become known int he autocross circuit (as was the Mustang SVO – both back in the day and for many many years thereafter).
With today’s final power and weight specs released by Ford, all that’s left now are the first real road tests of production cars. And those are in the works.
Ford Press Release follows.
Horsepower Unleashed – Motivating the All-New Ford Mustang with Improved Power-to-Weight Ratios
- 5.0-liter V8 headlines all-new Ford Mustang lineup with 435 horsepower and 400 lb.-ft. of torque and improved power-to-weight ratio
- New 2.3-liter EcoBoost® brings turbocharging and direct injection to Mustang with 310 horsepower and 320 lb.-ft. of torque – best-ever power density from a Ford engine
- Manual transmission provides smoother shifting than previous Mustangs; automatic transmission features steering wheel-mounted paddle shifters and downshift rev-matching
The all-new 2015 Ford Mustang offers three great engines including a standard 300-horsepower V6, a brand-new 310-horsepower EcoBoost® or an upgraded 435-horsepower V8. Each powerplant is available with either a manual or automatic transmission that makes the pony car a great all-around performer – no matter how the equipment is mixed and matched to suit any individual driving style.
The fewer the pounds a car carries for every unit of horsepower generated by the engine, the quicker and nimbler it feels, making power-to-weight ratio a key measure of performance. A recent study by Autoblog of cars currently available in the U.S. market puts Mustang at the top of the charts in power-to-weight ratio for all three price categories a customer can specify.
Mustang extends its lead further for 2015 with the EcoBoost-powered fastback now carrying fewer than 11.4 pounds per horsepower; Mustang GT has as few as 8.52 pounds per horsepower.
Less is more, EcoBoost comes to Mustang
The addition of a new 2.3-liter EcoBoost engine brings turbocharging to the Mustang powertrain lineup. This engine was designed specifically for Mustang, to meet the needs of drivers looking for outstanding performance and fuel efficiency.
The geometry of the EcoBoost intake manifold and turbocharger housing has been optimized to provide better breathing and higher output in Mustang. Producing 310 horsepower and 320 lb.-ft. of torque, the 2.3-liter EcoBoost engine fits the bill for a true Mustang powerplant – with the highest power density yet from a Ford engine.
“This EcoBoost engine delivers the healthy output Mustang drivers expect, regardless of the car’s speed,” said Scott Makowski, EcoBoost powertrain engineering manager. “It delivers where a Mustang driver expects it to – with a broad, flat torque curve and great driveability under any conditions.”
The newest member of Ford’s global EcoBoost engine family, the 2.3-liter continues to take advantage of state-of-the-art technologies including direct fuel injection, twin independent variable camshaft timing and turbocharging to produce big-engine power and torque with improved fuel efficiency.
The 2.3-liter EcoBoost is the first Ford engine to use a low-inertia twin-scroll turbocharger that provides quicker boost response while enabling lower emissions and improved efficiency. The cylinder head features an integrated exhaust manifold that separates the inner and outer pairs of cylinders into each of the two inlet passages to the turbo.
Keeping the exhaust pulses separated from the next cylinder in the firing order virtually eliminates mixing losses and maximizes the pulse energy to the turbine wheel. The result is similar performance to a more complex twin-turbocharger configuration, meaning quicker turbine spin-up and torque delivery when the driver needs it for passing maneuvers.
The separated exhaust ports also enable the exhaust valves to stay open longer for reduced pumping losses that improve specific fuel consumption compared to a single-scroll turbocharger configuration.
With a compact mill generating nearly 135 horsepower per liter and more than 139 lb.-ft. of torque per liter – powering a performance car whose drivers are more inclined to use it – ensuring engine durability was critical. Enhancements to the Mustang EcoBoost engine to withstand the added stresses include:
- Forged-steel crankshaft
- Piston-cooling jets
- Steel piston ring carriers
- Premium bearing materials
- Upgraded valve seat materials
- Forged-steel connecting rods
- High-pressure die-cast aluminum cylinder block with ladder-frame bearing caps
- Deep-sump, die-cast aluminum oil pan
The beating heart of a pony
No Ford Mustang engine lineup would be complete without a great V8 engine at its core. The 5.0-liter V8 powers into a new generation with a host of upgrades that help it breathe better, especially at higher engine speeds. Many of these changes are derived from lessons learned in developing the special-edition 2012 Mustang Boss 302.
Getting air into the cylinders and exhaust out is key to generating more power and torque from any engine. That has been the focus in the development of this V8, which features:
- Larger intake valves
- Larger exhaust valves
- Revised intake camshafts
- Revised exhaust camshafts
- Stiffer valve springs ensure valves close completely at high rpm
- New cylinder head casting – revised ports provide straighter path to the valves for less restrictive intake and exhaust flow; combustion chamber modifications accommodate larger valves
- Sinter forged connecting rods are lighter and more durable for high-rpm operation
- Redesigned piston tops – deeper cutouts clear the new larger valves
- Rebalanced forged crankshaft to support higher-rpm operation
These upgrades have boosted output of the V8 to 435 horsepower and 400 lb.-ft. of torque.
A new intake manifold includes charge motion control valves to partially close off port flow at lower engine speeds. This increases the air charge tumble and swirl for improved air-fuel mixing, resulting in better fuel economy, improved idle stability and lower emissions.
The variable camshaft timing on the intake side now has a greater range of adjustment available thanks to mid-lock phasers. This enables better optimized control of the valve timing over a broader range of engine speeds and loads for improved fuel economy and emissions.
More than most drivers, Mustang owners like to take control and shift for themselves. Whether they select a fully manual gearbox or the updated automatic transmission, the experience will be better than in any previous pony.
The manual has a new shift linkage design for easier engagement and improved precision. The shift lever is now positioned closer to the driver and away from the cupholders, creating a clear path for shifting.
Mustang blends outstanding all-around performance and everyday usability. Drivers who prefer to let the car handle the shifting during their daily work run, but who still want to take control when the roads get twisty, will appreciate the new steering wheel-mounted shift paddles with rev-matching downshifts – now standard with the SelectShift® six-speed automatic transmission.
The automatic also features a redesigned case with cast-in ribs that help make it stiffer and reduce weight. Internally, clutches are optimized and operating temperature increased to reduce friction. The output shaft is now supported by a ball bearing that enables a top speed of 155 mph for Mustang GT.
With a choice of powertrains to suit driving preferences and lifestyles, the new Mustang has cutting-edge technology under the hood to match its modern design. Yet regardless of engine choice, the car remains quintessentially Mustang.
… along with a comparison against the 2014 Mustang. For the sake of reference, the official curb weight of a 2013 Boss 302 is 3632 pounds.
And for the even more important numbers, this also from Ford today:
“Mustang EcoBoost fastback has best-ever weight distribution for a Mustang, with 52 percent of its weight over the front axle and 48 percent to the rear, while Mustang GT has 53 percent of its mass on the front wheels.”
It’s been a cold winter and a wet spring here in Central Texas this year… several shows had to be cancelled and some were held in the rain. But today, with a high of 97 degrees and a clear blue “Texas” sky, all such memories are gone. Cars and Coffee Austine had one of it’s largest attendances, and the show (and accompanying dyno) were on full blast.
What was our favorite car there? This time we’ll break with convention, and choose this Rolls that came here today right off the lot. Check out that door panel!
Here’s our full gallery of 121 images, covering just some of the cars there.
It’s strange, it’s bizarre, and it’s impractical. We love it. Nissan’s latest concept, the “NISSAN CONCEPT 2020 Vision Gran Turismo”, shows us one potential direction of Nissan styling studios for a future GT-R.
This is Nissan’s answer to the Toyota FT-1 Concept, a slightly more practical concept that also would need major revisions before it could be built. But both concepts point to certain styling features which would survive into production. In the case of the Nissan, it’s the narrow headlamps, the shape of the greenhouse (same as the current GT-R, and the slap-sided front and rear fenders (again, similar to the current GT-R). And this isn’t a rolling concept, much less a prototype – it was designed in virtual space as a game piece for the PlayStation.
Nissan Press Release follows:
June 16, 2014
Nissan and PlayStation reveal future vision
- NISSAN CONCEPT 2020 Vision Gran Turismo hints at the future
- 2+2 virtual supercar with advanced aerodynamic body
NASHVILLE. Tenn. – Nissan today lifts the virtual covers off the NISSAN CONCEPT 2020 Vision Gran Turismo, a vision of what a high performance Nissan could look like in the future. It was created through close collaboration with the creators of Gran Turismo®, Polyphony Digital Inc., the legendary PlayStation® driving franchise.
NISSAN CONCEPT 2020 Vision Gran Turismo began life as dream project for Nissan designers who were given free rein to create their dream supercar for their own Gran Turismo fantasy garage.
Created by a team of young designers at Nissan Design Europe, in London, England, the model was considered to have so much potential that it has benefited from input from an advanced engineering team based at Nissan Technical Centre in Atsugi, Japan.
As a result, NISSAN CONCEPT 2020 Vision Gran Turismo gives hints as to how a supercar of the future might look.
In July, automotive enthusiasts will be able to discover that performance first-hand when it becomes available to download in Gran Turismo®6, just as they did with the NISSAN GT-R and Skylines from earlier episodes of the historic franchise. That performance heritage and commitment to delivering excitement for enthusiasts is why there are Nissan vehicles in the franchise.
But as a specialist in automotive design in three-dimensions, Nissan believes that the real-world is ready for the NISSAN CONCEPT 2020 Vision Gran Turismo. Watch this space…
“PlayStation” and “Gran Turismo” are registered trademarks of Sony Computer Entertainment Inc.
About Nissan North America
In North America, Nissan’s operations include automotive styling, engineering, consumer and corporate financing, sales and marketing, distribution and manufacturing. Nissan is dedicated to improving the environment under the Nissan Green Program and has been recognized as an ENERGY STAR® Partner of the Year in 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 by the U.S Environmental Protection Agency. More information on Nissan in North America and the complete line of Nissan and Infiniti vehicles can be found online at www.NissanUSA.com and www.InfinitiUSA.com, or visit the Americas media sites NissanNews.com and InfinitiNews.com.
Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., Japan’s second-largest automotive company, is headquartered in Yokohama, Japan, and is part of the Renault-Nissan Alliance. Operating with more than 236,000 employees globally, Nissan sold more than 4.9 million vehicles and generated revenue of 9.6 trillion yen (USD 116.16 billion) in fiscal 2012. Nissan delivers a comprehensive range of over 60 models under the Nissan and Infiniti brands. In 2010, Nissan introduced the Nissan LEAF, and continues to lead in zero-emission mobility. The LEAF, the first mass-market, pure-electric vehicle launched globally, is now the best-selling EV in history.
After being cancelled several times this year due to rain (very unusual here in Central Texas due to the drought conditions we have suffered over the past few years), the Leander show has been on a roll with a great show last month and now another show this month without interruption.
But in our opinion it was only a fair show: the weather was dull and humid, the show was dominated by too many Dodges right in the middle, and many of the most exotic cars we used to see here, especially French cars, didn’t show. We need a greater variety of cars here, not just endless lookalike Dodge muscle cars, but a wide variety of cars. We’d like to see a great emphasis on balance: more French cars, early Model Ts, more military vehicles, more cars with swaps (only 1 was present today). Variety is the spice of life, and when any one brand or type dominates, it’s not representative of our great hobby and fewer attendees find their interest.
For the star of the show, we’re going to pick this Datsun 1600 Roadster (Fairlady in Japan). It was clean, highly desirable, and unmodified (except for a set of 300ZX rims). Full pictures of this are in the gallery.
Times are changing… and we have to accept all sorts of families these days, including Zombies. They are people too, or at least they were.
:-) spotted at a Starbucks in Central Texas.