What an interesting video Lincoln has posted… announcing that some big news will be released on December 3rd.
Might it be a new model… but what? Rumors have been flying for weeks and weeks… something we just wrote about yesterday. Might it be yet another variant of the Volvo-derived chassis (aka the grotesquely overweight MKS and MKT), the Fusion chassis (as in the new MKZ – interesting but not for a driving enthusiast), the new Focus chassis (can Lincoln sell a C-sized car?), or something else entirely?
Or might it simply be a publicity re-launch of Lincoln as a brand? And CBS news today published this article… which looks like the kind of advanced publicity a company would arrange before making a big announcement.
Analyzing the following video, we find something intriguing: there is a 4-door body shell behind the drummer. This doesn’t appear to be an existing Lincoln…?
And even more intriguingly, there is also a Mustang shell.
And what’s with the welding? Could they be carving up a Mustang to make it into a new Lincoln? Could such a rear wheel drive Lincoln based on the upcoming 2015 Mustang? That’s been one rumor that has been going around… it’s almost too good to be true. It would use the 2015 Mustang IRS (about which Ford has been particularly happy to have pictures leaked to the public). And is Lincoln finally ready to understand that they made a huge mistake cancelling the Lincoln LS?
Whatever it is, it has to compete with the phenomenal new Cadillac ATS, or the all-new CTS coming next year. Those cars have been successes beyond anything Lincoln has been able to accomplish in many years.
Watch the video, and keep an eye on this site on Monday the 3rd. Whatever it is, for driving enthusiasts or not, we’ll cover it.
Several car magazines recently have hinted that Lincoln may be considering a rear wheel drive platform using the new 2015 Mustang IRS and updated S197 chassis. Do they have inside information, or is this just speculation? Given Lincoln’s lackluster lineup, and the tremendous success of Cadillac with the CTS and ATS, we would find it hard to believe that Lincoln isn’t looking more closely at this idea. Especially given the low-investment (given the Mustang chassis) and the superb line of current engines – especially the EcoBoost series. These engines match and exceed anything that Cadillac can offer in the ATS, as well as BMW with the current 3-series.
We do find this ironic since Lincoln had such a product for several years, but didn’t know how to sell it and didn’t invest any significant money in updating it. The Lincoln LS was built on a state-of-the-art platform internally dubbed “DEW98″ which was also shared with the Jaguar S-Type and the Thunderbird (and was originally intended to be the basis for an all-new Mustang in the 2003 timeframe, until the bean counters decided it was too expensive). It featured a heavily aluminum-intensive suspension and crossmembers with double-A-arm coilovers at all four corners and would still be state-of-the-art today (Jaguar continues to use a slightly updated version of it). And it would also be an even competitor against the Nissan/Infiniti ”FM” platform, another state-of-the-art architecture used for the 370Z, G, M, FX, and EX lines.
We’ve put in many thousands of miles in various iterations of the LS over the years and we’ve found it to be a very competent and inspiring drive. There are still enthusiast groups dedicated to the car, with one enthusiast even offering a well-designed and tested supercharger kit for the car. Lincoln had cancelled its own plans for a factory supercharged V-8, with Brembo brakes and 6-speeed manual option (to be shared with the Thunderbird).
The entire idea of a new Lincoln rear wheel drive product is doubly ironic, because once the bean counters focused their beady little eyes on the LS platform they dumbed it down considerably to create the 2005 Mustang, losing the entire suspension (de-volving back to struts and a solid axle that only matched what the Camaro gave to the market all the way back in 1982!) and keeping only the middle of the floorpan and the gas tank. Even the trunk-mounted battery (part of a significant effort in the design of the LS to achieve a balanced chassis) was lost in the transition.
So here we are with a 201x Lincoln, based on the 2015 Mustang. So many years have been lost and so much progress could have been made. The new Lincoln would use the Mustang’s front strut design (slightly improved over the 2005-2014 Mustang) and the new 2015 IRS. The good news is that Lincoln could use the entire range of EcoBoost engines in it, perhaps topping out with the 3.5 liter EcoBoost V-6 – which to date the Mustang planners have refused to use (at least until Obama’s CAFE standards finally catch up with the Coyote 5-liter V-8). We can only dream about such a Lincoln, but probably for naught. Open questions are an all-wheel drive option and another variant of the chassis for a new Falcon.
But let’s go back in time to the days of the Lincoln LS. Browse our section on the LS, and read the following review we wrote in 1999 on a performance LS concept which debuted at SEMA. Think about what could have been back then, and with continuous improvement how much could have been accomplished by now.
Special Vehicle Concept Lincoln LS
Introduced: SEMA 1999 Status: Concept
Ford brought its own concept Lincoln LS to the show, featuring several important upgrades and improvements which may point the way to future LS options. This is also Ford’s first showing of a supercharged LS V-8 engine, although Ford’s Jaguar Division already has a supercharged version of this engine in production. We’d almost call this the “SVT” version of the LS: it’s styling is very restrained, yet fully functional. This is again a concept car, built to gauge public reaction.
- 3.9 L 32V Supercharged – “Turbodyne Electronic”
- 5-speed automatic transmission with SelectShift
- Eibach suspension kit: suspension lowered 1″, performance sway bars
- Magna flow low-back pressure mufflers and chrome exhaust tips
- 3:58 axle ratio with limited slip and traction control
- Custom brake package including cross-drilled rotors
- Seat Crafters two-tone leather seating surfaces with perforated inserts and color-coordinated piping
- Distinctive wood shift level
- Superior Dash burled walnut wood trim accents
- Nokia hands-free phone system with automatic 911 call-up
- Clarion – Multimedia Windows-based system
- Voice Activated audio – 9 speakers and 400 watts
- Navigation System – GPS Satellite database communication system
- Monochromatic paint
- Razzi Lincoln LS ground effects kit (according to the literature. However, Razzi didn’t build this kit – I believe Ford did in-house)
- HRE Type 543 multi-spoke 3-piece allow wheels: front 18×8 and rear 18×9
- Pirelli P-Zero tires: front 245/40R18 and rear 275/35R18
- Custom mesh grill
- Tinted windows
Customization of the vehicle is achieved using components from a variety of equipment manufacturers:
|Exhaust||Magna Flow / Grand Prix|
|Powertrain development||SVC / Eaton Supercharger|
|Interior trim||Seat Crafters / Superior Dash|
|Electronic equipment||Clarion Nokia|
|Design execution||SVC / Razzi|
While Lincoln hasn’t offered anything of interest to driving enthusiasts since the late and dearly missed Lincoln LS (whose advanced chassis was originally slated to be used for a truly world-class Mustang as early as 2001), the design process will always be of interest to car enthusiasts.
Two press releases from Lincoln highlight the creation of a dedicated design studio, and the design process itself. Dedicated so that Lincoln designers can create a design language specific to and appropriate for Lincoln, rather than the past practice of simply rebadging a Ford and loading it with options. That practice clearly didn’t work for buyers. The company also wasn’t ready to shoulder the costs associated with it, and the existing Lincoln sales people didn’t know how to sell anything that wasn’t a “fancy Ford”. The Lincoln LS was indeed the first attempt at creating a unique Lincoln, not shared with Ford, and failed because of both the financials and the failure of the sales organization. Both are being addressed now, and the new Lincoln Design Center is an important step in the process.
The press photo below shows clay and fiberglass buck of the new MKZ, along a pre-production prototype. Look closely and you’ll see an unannounced SUV under wrap (Escape-sized?), along with what appears to be a small C-sized fiberglass buck. Interesting!
Two Lincoln Press Releases follow:
Lincoln Design Center Opening Marks New Milestone in Brand’s Reinvention
- Lincoln celebrates Design Center opening today; new studio houses approximately 150 designers, craftspeople and engineers dedicated solely to Lincoln production and concept vehicles
- All disciplines – creative and technical – work collaboratively in one space; first new dedicated Design Center for Lincoln since the 1970s
- All-new Lincoln MKZ midsize sedan, arriving later this year, first vehicle emerging from the new studio
DEARBORN, Mich., Oct. 18, 2012 – Lincoln celebrates another element of its reinvention journey today with the formal opening of the new Lincoln Design Studio in Dearborn, Mich., the brand’s first new fully dedicated design center in four decades.
This major facility, located on the campus of Ford Motor Company’s Product Development Center, is home to a skilled, co-located global team of designers, sculptors, math sculptors and modelers representing a dozen nationalities – and with experience in just as many design centers around the world.
This team is part of a dedicated Lincoln Product Development organization, creating four all-new Lincoln vehicles by 2015 to ensure the reinvented brand has a presence in the highest growth segments of the premium market.
“We have spent considerable time to develop strong integrated design, engineering and product programs into a common Product Development vision for Lincoln,” said Raj Nair, group vice president, Global Product Development, speaking at the opening program. “Lincoln’s advantage is we can build on the company’s tremendous global product development resources and ensure we continually innovate to develop the best technology and apply it to support the unique Lincoln difference.”
Nair pointed out two significant examples of this approach, highlighting the all-new Lincoln MKZ’s push-button shift and panoramic glass roof.
Creating a facility dedicated to Lincoln is an essential step in the reinvention of the brand.
“During the great recession, the U.S. luxury market had changed. Now, there is opportunity for a fresh, new alternative in the premium market,” said Jim Farley, group vice president, Global Marketing, Sales and Service. “Lincoln’s renaissance is built on our new product lineup and is a personalized experience with designs that deliver on our promise of a personalized motor car: beautiful, elegant, and most of all, surprising.”
The new design studio is located in the nerve center of Lincoln vehicle development, allowing engineers and designers to be co-located. Approximately 150 design team members who work exclusively for Lincoln are also in the center.
Max Wolff, Lincoln’s Director of Design, is responsible not only for the design of all Lincoln vehicles but also the environment in which they will be created.
The new home is an environment where designers and engineers truly collaborate. The loft-like studio replaces walls with glass. Cubicles are banished in favor of open workspaces where designers sit across from one another. The entire space is configured to allow Product Development team members to drop in, have ad-hoc discussions and make impromptu innovative brainstorm sessions the order of the day and not the exception.
“We also made it a priority to fit interior and exterior design teams into one space because often they are two separate work streams and therefore, two different sensibilities,” Wolff said. “Now everyone collaborates on one harmonious vehicle.”
The first vehicle to emerge from the new studio, the 2013 MKZ, goes on sale late this year.
From Idea to Sketch to Clay to Metal: How a Vehicle Comes to Life in the Lincoln Studio
Before a customer ever knows about a new Lincoln, a passionate team of engineers ensures that a new model meets the design intent and stacks up favorably against benchmarked competitors.
To deliver the optimum blend of sporty performance and refined ride – an attribute the new Lincoln customer demands – the new MKZ uses Continuously Controlled Damping (CCD) suspension. There are more than 1,200 individual settings that go into tuning the Lincoln CCD system. More than 4,000 man hours went into perfecting CCD to deliver the Lincoln ride DNA.
There isn’t much happening in the news with the Lincoln LS these days… Ford royally blew it when they cancelled their only platform which was technically a competitor to the Nissan FM platform (used by the 370Z and the Infiniti G and M).
But what we have to report is that a wrong-way driver in a Lincoln LS doing as much as 100 MPH outside of Seattle. And many scared drivers over an 17-mile stretch of I-5! Blame it on a combination of alcohol and prescription drugs. Catch the original report on KVAL here.
It’s a darn good thing she wasn’t driving this particular Lincoln LS: 100 would have been just off idle!
We’ve been writing about the Lincoln LS and admiring it since it first came out in 2000. As we’ve said many times before, this was a triumph of engineering by Ford and Jaguar, and it’s essentially Ford’s own version of the versatile Nissan/Infiniti “FM” platform. Highly aluminum intensive, weight saving all around, and designed from the start to underpin a variety of cars ranging form a state of the art Mustang all the way up to a svelte and sophisticated Lincoln Continental.
Alas, Ford blew it here, the dealers didn’t know how to sell it, the quality (like all Fords of that age) was poor, Little Billy Ford sliced and diced it’s planned enhancements, and in the end it failed. And, BTW, it’s also exactly what Lincoln needs right now.
But like a lot of great Fords, it has a second and extended life with enthusiasts. Some of us are more or less “normal”, and some others are not. Below, behold, a most definite “not”. This is certainly the only Lincoln LS with a 5.4 liter DOHC “modular” engine. And one big monster honking turbo.
We wish we had more details… but just look under that hood and admire the person who built this one. It’s the pure definition of “Hot Rod Lincoln”. We’ll never see anything like this again from Lincoln, much less Ford. Given the sad state of Lincoln’s plans, it’d be a major miracle to see another rear wheel drive chassis… and even if we do it’ll probably have an EcoBoost 4 and a battery pack. Yes from now we’ll look at this LS, and others, and say “those were the days”.
Very interesting article in the Detroit News today: http://detnews.com/article/20110606/AUTO01/106060342/1148/GM-refocusing-product-line. If you are a GM fan, read it closely as well as the follow-on article (with many more details): http://detnews.com/article/20110606/AUTO01/106060339/1148/GM-refocusing-product-line/Akerson’s-battle-plan-for-GM.
Good reading, but it’s Akerson’s remark about Lincoln that caught our eye: “They are trying like hell to resurrect Lincoln. Well, I might as well tell you, you might as well sprinkle holy water. It’s over“.
How true it is, and how sad it is. Lincoln has a line of dressed-up Fords, offering only a slightly better cut of leather and wood to differentiate them. We’ve see the same exact same badge engineering from Lincoln for too many years. Only the departed Lincoln LS was exclusive to Lincoln (although its DEW-98 platform shared with the Thunderbird and Jaguar). The platform engineering was world-class, but the sales team failed dearly. This should have been done right, although arguably the Ford of that time didn’t know how.
You have only to look at the enormous success of the Cadillac CTS for the justification of a rear wheel drive Lincoln. Or the undoubtedly similar success of the upcoming ATS, which will also supply a small and light basis for the next Camaro.
Or further east to Nissan, where the “FM” platform has spawned the entire Infiniti line of cars, as well as the 370Z. There may not be a more successful platform in the entire world. Costs are shared across many models, paying the engineering bill as well as the products costs of extensive aluminum components.
It’s exactly what Lincoln could have had. The DEW-98 was intended to underpin the Mustang, as well as a larger sedan (Continental?). And plans were in the works for a smaller version to build a BMW 3-sized competitor. A planned update to the platform could have taken the platform to the next step by reducing it’s already-reasonable weight and making provision for different lengths and widths. Exactly the same benefits that the ATS, CTS, and FM realize.
And instead Lincoln has nothing of note, other than a dated, heavy and slightly worked-over Volvo chassis.
It’s been a while since we posted anything about our favorite Lincoln: the Lincoln LS. Since Ford cancelled their most advanced rear wheel drive chassis ever, there hasn’t been much to post. However, we’re watching the news and this item caught our eye.
As our readers know, it was originally Ford’s intention to use the DEW98 platform (underpinning the LS, Thunderbird, and Jaguar S-Type) for an all-new Mustang. This aluminum-intensive platform features short/long arm coilovers at all 4 corners. It is Ford’s own analogy to the famous Nissan/Infiniti FM platform. The main problem with the platform was cost: all the forged and cast aluminum pieces (including all three crossmembers) were expensive to build. Never mind that other manufacturers do it en masse, and use their luxury brands to pay the expenses for less-expensive mainstream cars, Ford wasn’t capable of doing this. So there was a tremendous loss of potential when this platform was cancelled. And now in 2011, it’s exactly what Lincoln is missing.
Another problem was that Ford’s own 4.6 liter engines were too wide to go into the platform from below – normal manufacturing method. That question could have been resolved, but anybody wishing to build one on their own would have to drop it in from the top. And that speaks to a long-time interest of ours: if Ford couldn’t build an “SVT Lincoln LS” why not do it ourselves? A Cobra-based 4.6 liter DOHC V-8 and 6-speed transmission would approximate what Ford could have built and didn’t (Ford engineers privately built one example with a SOHC 4.6 and raced it in the Car & Driver One Lap of America series).
So we’ve been waiting for somebody to do this one their own… and someone finally did. Sort of. Instead of a proper Ford engine, they used a ubiquitous Chevy V-8. Hence, a “Lincoln LS1″.
You can follow the forum thread here, although as forum threads too-often do this one quickly devolved into ford-vs-chevy nonsense: http://www.lincolnvscadillac.com/showthread.php?t=71103.
While we’re on the “swap” today, here’s what we’re looking for next. A Lincoln LS with a 4.6 V-8. Yes, we know Ford engineers built one years ago for the One Lap of America event - in fact we watched it closely. And we’ve personally seen a Lincoln LS mule for the S197 (2005) Mustang in Ford’s former ”mule car holding yard” next to a TGIF in Dearborn.
But we want to see a “civilian” do it. And then we want to know how to do it ourselves. This one is a natural. Questions abound: can the electronics of a Lincoln LS be integrated with those of an S197 Mustang and 3-valve (or 4-valve) V-8?
Regular readers will know that we have been a big fan of the Lincoln LS since it’s inception. We’ve blogged about it for years, shown versions Lincoln had planned to produce and didn’t, and complained loud and long when Lincoln made the mistake of cancelling it and substituting the overweight Volvo-based replacement “MKS”. Ford’s decision to dumb down the LS chassis for the S197 Mustang instead of following thru on the original plan to use a shortened LS platform finally killed off the LS, as well as the Thunderbird platform-mate. The LS was the last chance for a true driving enthusiast product from Lincoln: one that Lincoln desperately needs in the current decade!
If you’re a fan of the LS, then hopefully you have been following the engineering and tuning work of the aptly named “Quik LS” in Austin, Texas USA. “Quick” is not the right word: besides attaining 408 HP at the wheels, with no internal mods (and nothing broken), the builder is now ready to sell kits so that you can have your own supercharged LS. The kit and it’s tuning are extremely well thought-out and the prototype has been running on the street (and track) for 2 1/2 years.
Follow the thread here: http://www.lincolnvscadillac.com/showthread.php?t=13357&page=32
And be sure to take note of the Torsen LSD he managed to fit into his car! That kind of attention to detail is what makes this a great piece of work.
We’ve seen the spy pics for months, now the production vehicel has been announced. This isn’t a vehicle for a Driving Enthusiast of any sort… and it isn’t meant to be unless your definition of Driving Enthusiast is a nice ride in a very carefully conditioned environment.
What’s important here is that this is yet another user of the new Ti-VCT 3.7 liter DOHC V-6, previously shown in the Mustang. And what’s notable is that despite the transverse mounting, the engine stil makes the full 305 HP and 280 ft-lb torque. This helps pay the bill for the use of the engine in the Mustang. This same engine has been spotted in spy pictures of the upcoming all-new Explorer as well (putting to rest another site’s claims that the Explorer wil be “all EcoBoost”).
What interesting is the technical discussion of Atkinson Cycle, the inclusion of fuel shutoff during deceleration, and some other fuel saving strategies. as Mazen Hammoud says, every component is optimized, as well as the operaiton of those components together.
Ford Press Release follows:
2011 LINCOLN MKX EMPLOYS ARRAY OF TECHNOLOGIES, INCREASING HORSEPOWER, MAINTAINING FUEL ECONOMY
- The 2011 Lincoln MKX boasts best-in-class horsepower and torque versus all V-6 competitors with unsurpassed fuel economy
- The new 3.7-liter Duratec® V-6 engine employs several fuel-efficient strategies that also improve performance, including Twin Independent Variable Camshaft Timing (Ti-VCT), aggressive deceleration fuel shutoff and Smart Charging
- Engineers applied lessons learned from Ford hybrid vehicles to the powertrain development of the 2011 Lincoln MKX
Its new 3.7-liter Duratec V-6 employs advanced technology and clever control strategies to increase horsepower and torque to best-in-class levels while achieving unsurpassed fuel economy.
“Fuel economy continues to be at the top of customers’ minds,” said Greg Johnson, Lincoln powertrain manager. “But customers refuse to compromise on power. With the 2011 Lincoln MKX, they won’t have to. We’re delivering increased power and torque with unsurpassed fuel economy.”
2011 Lincoln MKX customers will enjoy a luxury crossover that delivers best-in-class power and torque versus all V-6 competitors with unsurpassed highway fuel economy of 25 mpg – all on regular fuel. Horsepower has been increased to 305 – a 15 percent increase compared with the outgoing product – while torque is up to 280 ft.-lb., marking a 12 percent improvement.
The 3.7-liter V-6 is mated to a six-speed SelectShift Automatic™ transmission, which gives customers the option of a fun-to-shift manual experience.
In SelectShift mode, the transmission doesn’t second-guess the driver, offering total control over gear selection and performance feel. Upshifts, for instance, are not commanded at redline, and downshifts are allowed at the lowest gear possible as defined by the engine speed.
“When the system is in manual mode, engine speed matching provides faster and smoother downshifts, and the customer gets the gear they request within the limits of the rev limiter,” said Johnson.
When a lower gear is selected while descending a long downhill grade, the 2011 Lincoln MKX in SelectShift mode will hold that gear until the driver manually upshifts or returns to the fully automatic setting. To ensure safe shifting, the transmission will downshift to the lowest acceptable gear, based on a calculated maximum speed. That means if a vehicle were traveling at highway speeds, the driver could not downshift to first gear in SelectShift mode.
Improvements to engine hardware as well as the powertrain control strategies account for the gains in power and fuel economy. Here’s a closer look at how the 2011 Lincoln MKX delivers increased power without compromising fuel economy:
Twin Independent Variable Camshaft Timing (Ti-VCT)
What it is: Ti-VCT technology creates precise, variable timing control of both the intake and exhaust camshafts, which control the valve opening and closing events. Each of the four camshafts is controlled independently. Ti-VCT uses the intake camshaft phasing to advance the intake valve opening and the exhaust camshaft phasing to retard the exhaust valve closing. Ford’s unique strategy involves using a mild Atkinson cycle during part-throttle operation for fuel economy improvement.
The Atkinson cycle: The Atkinson cycle is similar to the familiar four-stroke cycle – intake, compression, combustion and exhaust – except the intake valve closes well after the piston begins moving upward to compress the air-fuel mixture.
There are two key benefits of the Atkinson cycle. First, it reduces the “pumping losses” associated with all gasoline engines. Additionally, because a fraction of the air-fuel mixture is released from the cylinder back into the induction system without being burned, the effective displacement of the engine is reduced. The power stroke, or the distance that burning fuel pushes on the piston, is longer than the effective intake stroke. This helps extract more energy from each drop of fuel. The Atkinson cycle is employed in Ford’s hybrid lineup, contributing to the unsurpassed fuel economy of both the Fusion and Escape Hybrids.
How it helps: The ability to vary the overlap between the intake and exhaust valves helps eliminate compromises in the two processes. The result is greater efficiency, which leads to better fuel economy – approximately 3 to 4 percent improvement from this strategy alone compared to non-VCT engines. Another benefit of Ti-VCT technology is a broadened torque curve. Because the Ti-VCT strategy allows the intake valve to be advanced, instant power is delivered when the customer demands it. Approximately a 10 percent power improvement is enabled by this strategy compared with non-VCT engines.
Aggressive Deceleration Fuel Shut-Off; torque-based deceleration control
What it is: A control strategy that shuts off the engine when the customer doesn’t command engine torque, which helps save fuel. A typical maneuver when this comes into play is during deceleration at freeway speeds when in fifth or sixth gear. The fuel flow seamlessly resumes when the vehicle reaches a low speed or when the driver accelerates again. All other powertrain, braking and electrical systems continue to function normally while the fuel delivery is stopped.
How it helps: The system uses the torque delivered to the transmission to keep the engine running at a low, more efficient point whenever possible, using the momentum generated rather than more fuel to keep the vehicle moving.
Battery management: “Smart Charging”
What it is: A system that allows the battery to be charged or discharged at optimal opportunities instead of allowing the alternator to continuously charge the battery independent of customer use, which wastes energy.
Smart Charging increases the alternator output when the vehicle brakes or decelerates, converting the vehicle’s kinetic (motion) energy into electric energy without having to use additional fuel.
How it helps: The “free” electric current is used to recharge the battery so that it can be used by the electrical systems later. This could be when the engine is switched off during a stop or when the generator is operating in a less efficient mode. The battery’s advanced management system continually monitors its status and communicates with Ford’s Aggressive Deceleration Fuel Shut-Off system so the regenerative charging feature can charge the battery in the optimal way. The decel system knows how much battery charge is available so that it can leave the engine running if the battery does not have a sufficient level of charge.
Longer battery life, reliable starts: Smart Charging improves the life of the battery because it keeps the battery at a more consistent level of charge, which in turn aids in reliable starting. The one-touch starting in the 2011 Lincoln MKX enables starts of around seven-tenths of a second with precise fuel delivery for maximum fuel economy and minimal emissions.
Engine hardware improvements
What was added or changed: Piston-cooling jets, polished valvetrain buckets, improved intake manifold and cylinder head port flow.
How they help: The piston-cooling jets spray oil on the underside of the pistons and enable faster oil warm-up and a higher compression ratio; the polished valvetrain buckets reduce friction, which in turn aids fuel economy and also improves durability (wear) of the cam and bucket tappet; the improved intake manifold and cylinder head optimizes engine “breathing,” contributing to overall system efficiency.
“The key to the performance gains and fuel economy with the 2011 Lincoln MKX is that we don’t look at power and fuel economy as being mutually exclusive,” said Mazen Hammoud, Lincoln powertrain calibrations manager. “Instead, we focus on optimizing every component, every system and every control in the powertrain for greater efficiency overall, which enables increased power, better performance and response and helps to maintain the fuel economy found in smaller-displacement engines.”
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